# Source code for elephant.sta

```
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
'''
Functions to calculate spike-triggered average and spike-field coherence of
analog signals.
:copyright: Copyright 2015-2016 by the Elephant team, see AUTHORS.txt.
:license: Modified BSD, see LICENSE.txt for details.
'''
from __future__ import division
import numpy as np
import scipy.signal
import quantities as pq
from neo.core import AnalogSignal, SpikeTrain
import warnings
from .conversion import BinnedSpikeTrain
[docs]def spike_triggered_average(signal, spiketrains, window):
"""
Calculates the spike-triggered averages of analog signals in a time window
relative to the spike times of a corresponding spiketrain for multiple
signals each. The function receives n analog signals and either one or
n spiketrains. In case it is one spiketrain this one is muliplied n-fold
and used for each of the n analog signals.
Parameters
----------
signal : neo AnalogSignal object
'signal' contains n analog signals.
spiketrains : one SpikeTrain or one numpy ndarray or a list of n of either of these.
'spiketrains' contains the times of the spikes in the spiketrains.
window : tuple of 2 Quantity objects with dimensions of time.
'window' is the start time and the stop time, relative to a spike, of
the time interval for signal averaging.
If the window size is not a multiple of the sampling interval of the
signal the window will be extended to the next multiple.
Returns
-------
result_sta : neo AnalogSignal object
'result_sta' contains the spike-triggered averages of each of the
analog signals with respect to the spikes in the corresponding
spiketrains. The length of 'result_sta' is calculated as the number
of bins from the given start and stop time of the averaging interval
and the sampling rate of the analog signal. If for an analog signal
no spike was either given or all given spikes had to be ignored
because of a too large averaging interval, the corresponding returned
analog signal has all entries as nan. The number of used spikes and
unused spikes for each analog signal are returned as annotations to
the returned AnalogSignal object.
Examples
--------
>>> signal = neo.AnalogSignal(np.array([signal1, signal2]).T, units='mV',
... sampling_rate=10/ms)
>>> stavg = spike_triggered_average(signal, [spiketrain1, spiketrain2],
... (-5 * ms, 10 * ms))
"""
# checking compatibility of data and data types
# window_starttime: time to specify the start time of the averaging
# interval relative to a spike
# window_stoptime: time to specify the stop time of the averaging
# interval relative to a spike
window_starttime, window_stoptime = window
if not (isinstance(window_starttime, pq.quantity.Quantity) and
window_starttime.dimensionality.simplified ==
pq.Quantity(1, "s").dimensionality):
raise TypeError("The start time of the window (window[0]) "
"must be a time quantity.")
if not (isinstance(window_stoptime, pq.quantity.Quantity) and
window_stoptime.dimensionality.simplified ==
pq.Quantity(1, "s").dimensionality):
raise TypeError("The stop time of the window (window[1]) "
"must be a time quantity.")
if window_stoptime <= window_starttime:
raise ValueError("The start time of the window (window[0]) must be "
"earlier than the stop time of the window (window[1]).")
# checks on signal
if not isinstance(signal, AnalogSignal):
raise TypeError(
"Signal must be an AnalogSignal, not %s." % type(signal))
if len(signal.shape) > 1:
# num_signals: number of analog signals
num_signals = signal.shape[1]
else:
raise ValueError("Empty analog signal, hence no averaging possible.")
if window_stoptime - window_starttime > signal.t_stop - signal.t_start:
raise ValueError("The chosen time window is larger than the "
"time duration of the signal.")
# spiketrains type check
if isinstance(spiketrains, (np.ndarray, SpikeTrain)):
spiketrains = [spiketrains]
elif isinstance(spiketrains, list):
for st in spiketrains:
if not isinstance(st, (np.ndarray, SpikeTrain)):
raise TypeError(
"spiketrains must be a SpikeTrain, a numpy ndarray, or a "
"list of one of those, not %s." % type(spiketrains))
else:
raise TypeError(
"spiketrains must be a SpikeTrain, a numpy ndarray, or a list of "
"one of those, not %s." % type(spiketrains))
# multiplying spiketrain in case only a single spiketrain is given
if len(spiketrains) == 1 and num_signals != 1:
template = spiketrains[0]
spiketrains = []
for i in range(num_signals):
spiketrains.append(template)
# checking for matching numbers of signals and spiketrains
if num_signals != len(spiketrains):
raise ValueError(
"The number of signals and spiketrains has to be the same.")
# checking the times of signal and spiketrains
for i in range(num_signals):
if spiketrains[i].t_start < signal.t_start:
raise ValueError(
"The spiketrain indexed by %i starts earlier than "
"the analog signal." % i)
if spiketrains[i].t_stop > signal.t_stop:
raise ValueError(
"The spiketrain indexed by %i stops later than "
"the analog signal." % i)
# *** Main algorithm: ***
# window_bins: number of bins of the chosen averaging interval
window_bins = int(np.ceil(((window_stoptime - window_starttime) *
signal.sampling_rate).simplified))
# result_sta: array containing finally the spike-triggered averaged signal
result_sta = AnalogSignal(np.zeros((window_bins, num_signals)),
sampling_rate=signal.sampling_rate, units=signal.units)
# setting of correct times of the spike-triggered average
# relative to the spike
result_sta.t_start = window_starttime
used_spikes = np.zeros(num_signals, dtype=int)
unused_spikes = np.zeros(num_signals, dtype=int)
total_used_spikes = 0
for i in range(num_signals):
# summing over all respective signal intervals around spiketimes
for spiketime in spiketrains[i]:
# checks for sufficient signal data around spiketime
if (spiketime + window_starttime >= signal.t_start and
spiketime + window_stoptime <= signal.t_stop):
# calculating the startbin in the analog signal of the
# averaging window for spike
startbin = int(np.floor(((spiketime + window_starttime -
signal.t_start) * signal.sampling_rate).simplified))
# adds the signal in selected interval relative to the spike
result_sta[:, i] += signal[
startbin: startbin + window_bins, i]
# counting of the used spikes
used_spikes[i] += 1
else:
# counting of the unused spikes
unused_spikes[i] += 1
# normalization
result_sta[:, i] = result_sta[:, i] / used_spikes[i]
total_used_spikes += used_spikes[i]
if total_used_spikes == 0:
warnings.warn(
"No spike at all was either found or used for averaging")
result_sta.annotate(used_spikes=used_spikes, unused_spikes=unused_spikes)
return result_sta
[docs]def spike_field_coherence(signal, spiketrain, **kwargs):
"""
Calculates the spike-field coherence between a analog signal(s) and a
(binned) spike train.
The current implementation makes use of scipy.signal.coherence(). Additional
kwargs will will be directly forwarded to scipy.signal.coherence(),
except for the axis parameter and the sampling frequency, which will be
extracted from the input signals.
The spike_field_coherence function receives an analog signal array and
either a binned spike train or a spike train containing the original spike
times. In case of original spike times the spike train is binned according
to the sampling rate of the analog signal array.
The AnalogSignal object can contain one or multiple signal traces. In case
of multiple signal traces, the spike field coherence is calculated
individually for each signal trace and the spike train.
Parameters
----------
signal : neo AnalogSignal object
'signal' contains n analog signals.
spiketrain : SpikeTrain or BinnedSpikeTrain
Single spike train to perform the analysis on. The binsize of the
binned spike train must match the sampling_rate of signal.
KWArgs
------
All KWArgs are passed to scipy.signal.coherence().
Returns
-------
coherence : complex Quantity array
contains the coherence values calculated for each analog signal trace
in combination with the spike train. The first dimension corresponds to
the frequency, the second to the number of the signal trace.
frequencies : Quantity array
contains the frequency values corresponding to the first dimension of
the 'coherence' array
Example
-------
Plot the SFC between a regular spike train at 20 Hz, and two sinusoidal
time series at 20 Hz and 23 Hz, respectively.
>>> import numpy as np
>>> import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
>>> from quantities import s, ms, mV, Hz, kHz
>>> import neo, elephant
>>> t = pq.Quantity(range(10000),units='ms')
>>> f1, f2 = 20. * Hz, 23. * Hz
>>> signal = neo.AnalogSignal(np.array([
np.sin(f1 * 2. * np.pi * t.rescale(s)),
np.sin(f2 * 2. * np.pi * t.rescale(s))]).T,
units=pq.mV, sampling_rate=1. * kHz)
>>> spiketrain = neo.SpikeTrain(
range(t[0], t[-1], 50), units='ms',
t_start=t[0], t_stop=t[-1])
>>> sfc, freqs = elephant.sta.spike_field_coherence(
signal, spiketrain, window='boxcar')
>>> plt.plot(freqs, sfc[:,0])
>>> plt.plot(freqs, sfc[:,1])
>>> plt.xlabel('Frequency [Hz]')
>>> plt.ylabel('SFC')
>>> plt.xlim((0, 60))
>>> plt.show()
"""
if not hasattr(scipy.signal, 'coherence'):
raise AttributeError('scipy.signal.coherence is not available. The sfc '
'function uses scipy.signal.coherence for '
'the coherence calculation. This function is '
'available for scipy version 0.16 or newer. '
'Please update you scipy version.')
# spiketrains type check
if not isinstance(spiketrain, (SpikeTrain, BinnedSpikeTrain)):
raise TypeError(
"spiketrain must be of type SpikeTrain or BinnedSpikeTrain, "
"not %s." % type(spiketrain))
# checks on analogsignal
if not isinstance(signal, AnalogSignal):
raise TypeError(
"Signal must be an AnalogSignal, not %s." % type(signal))
if len(signal.shape) > 1:
# num_signals: number of individual traces in the analog signal
num_signals = signal.shape[1]
elif len(signal.shape) == 1:
num_signals = 1
else:
raise ValueError("Empty analog signal.")
len_signals = signal.shape[0]
# bin spiketrain if necessary
if isinstance(spiketrain, SpikeTrain):
spiketrain = BinnedSpikeTrain(
spiketrain, binsize=signal.sampling_period)
# check the start and stop times of signal and spike trains
if spiketrain.t_start < signal.t_start:
raise ValueError(
"The spiketrain starts earlier than the analog signal.")
if spiketrain.t_stop > signal.t_stop:
raise ValueError(
"The spiketrain stops later than the analog signal.")
# check equal time resolution for both signals
if spiketrain.binsize != signal.sampling_period:
raise ValueError(
"The spiketrain and signal must have a "
"common sampling frequency / binsize")
# calculate how many bins to add on the left of the binned spike train
delta_t = spiketrain.t_start - signal.t_start
if delta_t % spiketrain.binsize == 0:
left_edge = int((delta_t / spiketrain.binsize).magnitude)
else:
raise ValueError("Incompatible binning of spike train and LFP")
right_edge = int(left_edge + spiketrain.num_bins)
# duplicate spike trains
spiketrain_array = np.zeros((1, len_signals))
spiketrain_array[0, left_edge:right_edge] = spiketrain.to_array()
spiketrains_array = np.repeat(spiketrain_array, repeats=num_signals, axis=0).transpose()
# calculate coherence
frequencies, sfc = scipy.signal.coherence(
spiketrains_array, signal.magnitude,
fs=signal.sampling_rate.rescale('Hz').magnitude,
axis=0, **kwargs)
return (pq.Quantity(sfc, units=pq.dimensionless),
pq.Quantity(frequencies, units=pq.Hz))
```